Second Generation Biofuels

Second-generation biofuels (advanced biofuels), are those biofuels that can be manufactured from various types of non-food biomass. Examples of second generation biofuels are those made from algae, renewable fuels made via the Fischer-Tropsch process, cellulosic ethanol, and bio hydrogen.  Different from the first generation biofuels, made from edible feedstocks like ethanol from sugarcane or corn,…

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Techno-economic analysis: Algae Cultivation

How do algae experts assist in techno-economic analysis (TEA).  TEA is the combination of conceptual process design and production cost estimation activities. Algae cultivation refers to the growth and recovery of algal biomass in open ponds or photobioreactors. Many algae strains of interest produce oils that may be used as food or nutraceuticals, or upgraded…

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First Generation and Second Generation Biofuels

First generation biofuels are those made from sugar, starch, or vegetable oil.  Their feedstocks are those that may not be sustainable or might have an impact on food if used in large quantities.  These original first generation biofuels include biodiesel, ethanol, green diesel and biogas.  Second generation biofuels are those made from sustainable feedstocks as…

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Optimization of Aerobic Fermentation

As most renewable energy and power companies know, power consumption during aerobic fermentation is one of the major operating costs. At any given point in the process, there are many combinations of airflow and agitation that will give the required mass transfer rate. But the combined power required of the agitator plus the compressor is…

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Bio-plastics

Bio-plastics are gathering lots of attention as U.S companies increasingly embrace the concept of a circular economy that aims to create innovative, sustainable ways to reduce waste and preserve resources. Biodegradable plastics are made from renewable biologic substances, from plants to agricultural waste, rather than petroleum. Their role is the focus of sessions at the…

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Renewable Energy Projects

Interest in renewable energy projects, the pivot point to the transition to greater sustainability and a smaller carbon footprint, has continued to escalate among entrepreneurs, investors, and policymakers around the world. The International Energy Agency is now predicting renewable energy projects such as renewable electricity generation will increase by more than one-third by 2022, the result…

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Maritime Use of Renewable Fuels

Marine renewable fuels are beginning to attract a great deal of attention just like sustainable aviation fuel has done. Why is that?  Much of the world’s oil supply contains about one-half percent of sulfur, which is known to cause respiratory and heart problems.  For many years, price conscious ocean going vessels have been using the…

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Lignins

Lignins are natural polymers that give the cell walls of plants their strength, have been called some nasty names: an “ugly, unwieldy molecule,” ornery, tough, and uncooperative.  But lignin experts say the unloved, but abundant, substance, is coming into its own as a sustainable and effective alternative to fossil fuels. The second most abundant polymer in…

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