Cellulosic Hydrolysis Reactors

Cellulosic Hydrolysis Reactors? Cellulosic materials, such as corn stover, cane, switchgrass, timber waste, municipal solid waste, etc., can be processed into fuels and renewable chemicals. Broadly speaking, there are two main methods: pyrolysis and hydrolysis. The former is relatively independent of feedstock but happens at high temperatures and may have yield losses due to breakdown…

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Aerobic Fermentation Processing

Bio-processing may involve aerobic fermentation, whereas ethanol and chemicals from starches and lignocellulosic materials are generally anaerobic processes. Aerobic fermentation is a metabolic process by which cells metabolize sugars via fermentation in the presence of oxygen and occurs through the repression of normal respiratory metabolism. Aerobic fermentation occurs in the presence of oxygen. It usually…

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Good Manufacturing Practices

“Good Manufacturing Practices” (GMPs) is a term describing a body of regulations promulgated by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA).  These are listed in the Code of Federal Regulations under part 21; they are numerous, extensive, and complex.  As a result, there exists a myriad of very similar definitions which attempt to describe the entirety…

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Plastic Recycling

Despite the many positive benefits to using plastics and the impact they have had on daily life, they currently seem to have more of a negative reputation and plastic recycling has become a booming business.  This is due largely in part to mismanagement of plastic waste.  While much of the plastic waste is landfilled, a…

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Biofuels Project Funding

As a greener planet and sustainable future would appear to be something everyone should agree on, the question becomes why biofuels project funding is not a given. Why do many bioenergy projects, even very good ones, not get the funding they need? Undoubtedly, there are many reasons that failures to obtain financing occur, but some…

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Cellulosic Ethanol Experts

Cellulosic ethanol is a biofuel produced from the fibrous cellulose and hemicellulose fractions of herbaceous (switchgrass, corn stover, miscanthus) or woody biomass, as opposed to a plant’s seeds or fruit, and the cellulosic ethanol expert deals with these feedstocks that are mostly inedible, eliminating the “food v. fuel” arguments that sometime surround standard biofuels. Almost…

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The Expert Witness in Biofuels and Biochemicals Litigation

When oil prices are relatively low, and the status of U.S. government incentives has continued uncertainty, a predictable downturn in biofuel and biochemical related industries brings with it increased participant discomfort, leading to more lawsuits and finding the right biochemical or biofuels expert witness become paramount. Those of us that have been in the “bioeconomy”…

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Plastic Waste Experts

What do plastic waste experts or consultants do?  Plastic is one of the most widely used and cheapest materials in the world today. Almost everything is either made from plastic or wrapped in plastic. We use around 5 trillion plastic bags a year worldwide!  The US alone throws away enough plastic bottles in a week…

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