Articles written by Lee Enterprises Consulting Bioeconomy Expert(s)

Oil and Gas Looks at Biofuels

Oil and Gas Look at Biofuels by Larry Sullivan A few, not many, myself included, enjoyed a substantial career in oil and gas before joining the bioeconomy. Oil and gas feature much in the way of international travel, long hours in isolated locations, work on drilling rigs in dangerous countries, and some excellent opportunities to…

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Glycerin as Anti-Freeze Agent for Coal

Glycerin as Anti-Freeze Agent for Coal?  Anyone who has produced biodiesel knows that glycerin can set up like wax if the process is over-catalyzed and/or animal fats are used as feedstocks. More than one of us has shoveled our share of “hard” glycerin.   As a result, many biodiesel producers find it surprising that one of…

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Scale-Up of Emerging Biofuel Technologies

ScaleUp of Emerging Biofuels Technologies? INTRODUCTION: The continued interest in advanced biofuels has produced numerous exciting technical advances on the laboratory, pilot and demonstration scales.  However, attempts to translate these small scale successes into commercial technologies have been less successful.   It is easy to blame lower oil and natural gas prices and opposition from special…

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The Demand for Natural Rubber

The demand for natural rubber? In 2004, the History Channel broadcast a Modern Marvels Special on Natural Rubber. My favorite quote from that special is “Our four most important natural resources are air, water, petroleum, and rubber.” (I would have argued for soil to be part of the list.) Nonetheless, while most people guess the…

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CO2 Utilization: The Future of Hydrocarbon Fuels

CO2 Utilization? Carbon dioxide (C02), is a colorless and odorless gas that occurs in nature and serves as source of carbon for photosynthesis in all plants and crops. CO2 utilization’ refers to its use at concentrations above atmospheric levels, directly or as a feedstock in industrial or chemical processes, to produce valuable carbon-containing product. Energy…

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Pyrolysis Oil – Commercial Markets are a Reality

Pyrolysis Oil – Commercial Markets are a Reality.  Did you know that new commercial-scale pyrolysis oil plants have recently come into play? Did you know that customers are buying pyrolysis oil in Sweden, Finland, Netherlands and the US? Did you know that for the first time pyrolysis oil is being shipped in volume by sea?…

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A Short History of Biofuels

Introduction History of biofuels? In the modern world, fuels are often equated with fossil fuels:  coal, oil and natural gas.  However, fossil fuels only came into their own during the 20th century.  From the time of the caveman until the early Industrial Revolution, biofuels – namely wood and the advanced biofuel of the day, charcoal – reigned…

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