BPA and Plastics

BPA (Bisphenol A), is a chemical widely used to make hard, clear plastics. Its strength, structural stability, and light weight have made it excellent for use in things like eyeglasses and water bottles.  However, BPA has been linked to several health problems as it disrupts how hormones function in the body. For many years BPA…

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Expert Witness – Ethanol

Large renewable energy and biochemical consulting firms like Lee Enterprises Consulting have ethanol and cellulosic ethanol specialists willing to serve as ethanol expert witnesses in related claims, litigation, arbitration and mediations, or to help attorneys evaluate their biodiesel case.  Although expert witness work is only a small part of what they do, most of these…

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Commercialization of Biofuels Technology

Commercialization of Biofuels Technology refers to the process that transforms a biofuels technology from concept into a profitable biofuels’ technology operating entity. Inventors and their investors must convert their concepts into commercial success to achieve a financial return with the least amount of risk exposure. The normal path for commercializing a biofuels technology idea includes…

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Anaerobic Digesters: Methanogen

Methanogen refers to an anaerobic process in which the electron equivalents in organic matter (BODL) are used to reduce carbon to its most reduced oxidation state, -4 in CH4, or methane. Methane is a poorly soluble gas that evolves from water. Thus, the BODL is removed from the water by directing electron equivalents to CH4,…

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Process Development: Bench to Commercialization

Process development -leading a process from bench-scale optimization and characterization through scale-up to piloting and commercialization requires a variety of knowledge and skills for the process development engineer and scientist.  Beyond core competencies (e.g. chemistry, thermodynamics, mass and energy balances, etc.) of those that work in process development teams, there are additional skills that help…

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Why and When You Need a Project Consultant

In the bioeconomy, the role of project consultant in the bioeconomy is somewhat the same as in any industry, and somewhat unique.  It requires first and foremost, a clear understanding of everyone’s duties and limitations.  When an investor or developer hires a project consultant, what are they right to expect?  Someone who can lead and…

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Torrefied Biomass

Torrefied biomass is available, efficient, CO2 neutral and economic, and likely the best solid biomass on the market.  Torrefaction is a thermal pre-treatment technology used to upgrade lignocellulosic biomass to higher quality and more attractive biofuel. In the torrefaction process, biomass is heated to 250-350°C in a low oxygen atmosphere, so that all moisture is…

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The Industrial State of Biofuels Technologies

By Dr. Gerald Kutney, Lee Enterprises Consulting A myriad of biofuel technologies exist, but which ones are truly industrial processes? The question is not always easy to answer. And one must define what is meant by an industrial process. To facilitate this task, three classifications of industrial status are utilized: Established – modern facilities are numerous,…

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