The terms “biofuels” and “renewable biofuels” refer to a fuel produced by some biological process like agriculture or anaerobic digestion, as opposed to fossil fuels (coal and petroleum) which are produced through a geological process which come from prehistoric biological matter. After years of research and development, many biofuels now exist. They are normally classified by generation, as follows:
First-generation biofuels are made from sugar, starch, vegetable oil, or animal fats using conventional technology. These are generally produced from grains high in sugar or starch fermented into bioethanol; or seeds that which are pressed into vegetable oil used in biodiesel. Common first-generation biofuels include vegetable oils, biodiesel, bioalcohols, biogas, solid biofuels, syngas.
Second-generation biofuels are produced from non-food crops, such as cellulosic biofuels and waste biomass (stalks of wheat and corn, and wood). Common second-generation biofuels include vegetable oils, biodiesel, bioalcohols, biogas, solid biofuels, and syngas. Research continues on second-generation biofuels including biohydrogen, biomethanol, DMF, Bio-DME, Fischer-Tropsch diesel, biohydrogen diesel, mixed alcohols and wood diesel.
Third-generation biofuels are produced from extracting oil of algae – sometimes referred to as “oilgae”. Its production is supposed to be low cost and high-yielding – giving up to nearly 30 times the energy per unit area as can be realized from current, conventional ‘first-generation’ biofuel feedstocks.
Some biofuels are derived directly from plant algae, while others are made indirectly from converting some biomass such as agricultural, commercial, domestic, or industrial waste. This biomass conversion normally occurs by either thermal conversion, chemical conversion, or some biochemical conversion, and results in a fuel that may be solid, liquid or gas – which can be then used as fuel. Cellulosic biomass is the structural portion of plants, including complex sugars that cannot directly be used for food ingredients or fermentation substrates. According to the US Department of Energy (EERE Biomass Program 2012), cellulosic biomass can be obtained from a variety of sources, such as agricultural residues (corn stover, sugarcane bagasse, spent sugar beet pulp and sweet sorghum, etc.), forestry residues (fallen branches, leaves, twigs, saw dust, etc.), municipal solid waste (paper and paperboard products), industrial wastes (papermaking sludge), agricultural feedstocks grown as energy crops (herbaceous and woody crops, such as switchgrass, fast-growing hybrid poplar and leucaena trees, etc.)
Lee Enterprises Consulting (LEC) offers a wide range of services in biofuels, biochemicals, biotechnologies, biomaterials, synthetic biology commercialization, feedstocks, and hemp/cannabis. The company has business and financial services like due diligence, feedstock availability, grants and loans and bio market research. The company also offers technical and engineering related services like techno economic analysis, environmental evaluations, feasibility studies, risk analysis and expert witness engagements. The company also has strategic partnerships in place to assist clients with insurance, legal, accounting, plant fabrication, feedstock procurement. With over 150 experts worldwide, Lee Enterprises Consulting also has experts in anaerobic digestion, fermentation, biomass, conversion technologies for things like tires and railroad ties, organic synthesis, fuel additives, ethanol gas, biodiesel fuel including algae biofuels, solid state and industrial fermentation, green energy grants, ag biotech, agricultural waste, alcohol fuels, alternative proteins and animal-free products, sustainable foods, beverage fermentation, biocatalysis, biodiesel conversion, biogas production, biomass power, carbon intensity, co2 utilization, combined heat & power, Fischer-Tropsch technology, food waste, hydrothermal carbonization, industrial enzymes, landfill management, microbial fermentation, organic synthesis, plastic pyrolysis, plastic recycling, plastic waste, pyrolysis oil, reactor design, renewable identification number, the Renewable Fuel Standard (rfs2), solid recovered fuels, torrefaction and torrefied biomass, waste to energy, and waste-to-hydrogen. This is a multidisciplinary group of green energy consultants that is a virtual “one stop shop” for any client need and handles projects of all types and sizes.
Look at our 150+ experts and the services we provide. Most of our experts are also available to advise and serve as expert witnesses in bioeconomy litigation matters. For the larger projects, we specialize in putting together full service, interdisciplinary teams with one point of contact. See video about LEC here. Call us at 1+ (501) 833-8511 or email us for more information.