Blogs written by Lee Enterprises Consulting Bioeconomy Expert(s)

Carbon Intensity

Carbon intensity (CI), sometimes used interchangeably with emission intensity, refers to the greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions per unit of product such as fuels, electrical power, or materials. The CI is calculated on a life cycle bases such that it includes the emissions associated with the production of materials and fuels used in the process.  (Actually,…

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Solid State Fermentation

Solid state fermentation (SSF) is a biomolecule manufacturing process that is used in the food, pharmaceutical, textile, cosmetic, and fuel industries. These molecules are mostly generated by microorganisms grown on a solid support selected for this purpose. This technology, in culturing microorganisms, is an alternative to liquid or submerged fermentation, a method of manufacturing the biomolecules in which the enzymes…

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Food Safety Modernization Act Compliance

What is Food Safety Modernization Act Compliance? Although it has a more formal, legal name, the short title is, “FDA Food Safety Modernization Act” – otherwise known as FSMA.  It is Public Law 111-353 dated January 4, 2011.  Although the law itself, is composed of 88 pages in the Federal Register, it required promulgation of…

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Plastics Pyrolysis

Plastic pyrolysis refers to converting plastics into other products by means of some thermal type treatment.  An example of such technology would be a plastic-to-fuel (PTF) technology that would convert scrap plastic into fuels. The term “conversion technology” encompasses a broad range of technologies that are used to treat a wide variety of materials in…

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Expert Witness – Intellectual Property

Intellectual property (IP) underlies a great deal of the litigation in the bioeconomy and elsewhere.  Topics like freedom to operate and patent infringement can be extraordinarily complex and highly technical, sometimes turning on the interpretation of a single word in a contract, patent claim, or patent specification.  Companies involved in litigation often have need for…

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Anaerobic Digesters: What They Are & What They Do

Anaerobic digesters use a biological process used to manage some type of waste (like sewage, cow, pig, or chicken manure) and to produce a gas called “biogas”. Biogas is primarily composed of methane and carbon dioxide and depending on the waste feedstock and the system design is typically 55 to 75 percent pure methane (with…

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Renewable Green Diesel

Renewable green diesel or biodiesel? Although it serves a vital function in reducing air pollution, carbon emissions, and our dependence on fossil fuels, and is certainly a very important source of income for farmers, there is simply not enough land available for traditional biodiesel to completely replace traditional diesel fuel.  However, there are many new…

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Supercritical Biomass Conversion

What are supercritical biomass conversion experts? The supercritical steam conversion of woody biomass directly to a refine-able bio-crude, or directly to sugars, to monomers, and to synthesis gas have all been demonstrated.  And supercritical steam technology is in widespread use for power generation.  The goal now is to combine new bio-processing techniques with established supercritical…

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